PEARLS (created by the Primary Healthcare Field based in New Zealand and funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Health and New Zealand Doctor)

747: Should we be taking zinc to prevent and treat the common cold? 

746: What does the evidence show about the containment measures used in schools to prevent the spread of COVID-19? 

745: Which type of physical exercise benefits people with Parkinson’s disease the most? 

744: Are psychological therapies helpful for people with coronary heart disease, heart failure or atrial fibrillation? 

743: Can psychological therapies effectively treat depression in older adults in assisted living? 

742: Can hospital at home avoid hospital admittance? 

741: Do m-health smartphone interventions help adolescents and adults who are overweight or obese? 

740: Do decision aids help people make decisions about healthcare? 

739: Do cranberries help prevent UTIs? 

738: Should we be taking zinc to prevent and treat the common cold? 

737: Does cognitive behavioural therapy reduce the fear of falling in older people living in the community?

736: Does adenoidectomy help prevent further recurrences of otitis media with effusion in children?

735: What is the best treatment for alopecia areata?

734: Is bladder training effective for treating an overactive bladder in adults?

733: Does timed intercourse increase the chances of pregnancy for couples trying to conceive?

732: Do blue-light filtering lenses improve visual performance, protect vision, and improve sleep in adults?

731: Should you give paracetamol or an NSAID or both together for pain relief in acute otitis media?

730:  Does the combined oral contraceptive pill help those that suffer from primary dysmenorrhoea?  

729: Does endovenous ablation aid healing of venous leg ulcers?

728: Does social networking to support cardiac rehabilitation, benefit people with heart disease?

727: Can cognitive rehabilitation improve everyday functioning for people suffering from mild to moderate dementia?

726: Are interventions at an individual level beneficial for reducing occupational stress in healthcare workers?

725: Do cannabis-based medicines and medical cannabis relieve pain in adults with cancer?

724: Can pharmacological interventions benefit those with an acute attack of vestibular migraine?

723: Do cranberries prevent urinary tract infections?

722: Should antidepressants be prescribed to treat depression in people with cancer?

721: Can controlling blood pressure reduce the incidence of ocular complications in people with diabetes?

720: Can exercise benefit people with pulmonary hypertension?

719: Can changing the environment prevent falls in older people?

718: Does dietary supplementation with antenatal myo-inositol prevent gestational diabetes?

717: Can Vitamin D supplementation improve asthma control?

716: Does lowered salt intake prevent or slow the progression of diabetic kidney disease?

715: Are glucocorticoids the best drug for relieving croup?

714: Is reducing blood pressure to below standard targets helpful?

713: Do corticosteroids help treat radicular and nonradicular low back pain?

712: Do antidepressants help to treat hip and knee osteoarthritis?

711:  Should you increase corticosteroids or exacerbations in chronic asthma?

710: Is acupuncture an effective treatment for overactive bladder?

709: Do mobility strategies improve patient outcomes after hip fracture?

708: Does listening to music help adults who suffer from insomnia?

707: Does physical activity benefit people with irritable bowel syndrome?

706: How effective are antiplatelet agents for the treatment of DVT's?

705: How effective are anti-IL-5 therapies for asthma?

704: Can GPs clinical judgement be used for the diagnosis of dementia?

703:  Are there effective interventions to prevent falls in people with Parkinson's disease

702: Is there an effective treatment to prevent recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis?

701: Do cannabinoids provide symptom relief for people with multiple sclerosis

700: For women with symptomatic endometriosis do Levonorgestrelreleasing intrauterine devices help when used post-surgery?

699: Are oral antihistaminedecongestantanalgesic combinations effective against the common cold?

698: Does extra calcium help to prevent primary hypertension?

697: Is arthroscopic surgery warranted for degenerative knee disease?

696: Are inhaled corticosteroids effective for treating COVID19?

695: Is a low carbohydrate diet better than a balancedcarbohydrate diet for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk?

694: How do Calcium channel blockers compare to other drugs for the treatment of hypertension?

693: Are foot orthoses effective for treating paediatric flat feet?

692: Are rapid point of care antigen tests sufficient for diagnosing COVID-19?

691: Does actively providing information to stroke survivors and their carers improve quality of life?

690: Does phototherapy help those suffering from atopic eczema?

689: Does music therapy improve psychological and physical outcomes for people with cancer?

688: Does exercise therapy help people suffering from low back pain?

687: Can strategies delivered in primary care improve smoking cessation rates?

686: Can you improve adherence to pharmacological therapy for those with COPD?

685: Can non-drug therapies prevent lower limb muscle cramps?

684: Is Chronic non-invasive ventilation useful for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

683: How good is telehealth assessment for the diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment?

682: Does bisphosphonate use improve bone mineral density in children with cerebral palsy?

681: Does reducing salt intake benefit adults with chronic kidney disease?

680: What is the most effective treatment for daytime sleepiness in those suffering from idiopathic hypersomnia?

679: How effective and safe are newer generation antidepressants in children and adolescents with diagnosed major depressive disorder?

678: Does Pharmacological treatment of Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease help Asthma sufferers?

677: Is anticholinergic burden a prognostic factor for future cognitive decline in older adults?

676: What is the safest and most effective treatment for varicoceles in men affected by subfertility?

675: Do Selective serotonin re‐uptake inhibitors help men with premature ejaculation?

674: Does the use of Mobile Phones improve Adherence in those taking preventive medication for cardiovascular disease?

673: Do biologics work for sufferers of chronic rhinosinusitis?

672: Does quitting smoking improve mental Health?

671: Do skin care interventions stop infants from developing eczema and allergies?


670: Should you give cancer patients primary prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism?

669: Does acupuncture help chronic low back pain?

668: Is surgery still the best answer for basal cell carcinoma?

667: Do oropharyngeal exercises reduce sleepiness in people suffering from sleep apnoea?

666: Do electronic cigarettes help smokers quit?

665: What is the best systemic immunosuppressive treatment for eczema?

664: Treating vaginal thrush with oral or intravaginal medication: which is better?

663: Should you aim to lower blood pressures to below 135/85 in those with hypertension and a history of cardiovascular disease?

662: Will tailoring activities to incorporate patient’s interests help people with dementia living in the community?

661: Will psychological therapy be helpful for women who experience intimate partner violence?

660: Is LNG-IUS acceptable and safe for women with heavy menstrual bleeding?

659: Is withdrawal of antihypertensives in older people feasible?

658: Is Pitavastatin better than older statins for lowering lipids?

657: Is the increased life expectancy worth the potential adverse effects for those undergoing radical prostatectomy for localised prostate cancer?

656: Indoor Salt Water Baths + UVB Light helps Chronic Psoriasis 

655: Reducing Dietary Saturated Fat will reduce the risk of cardiovascular events

654: Corticosteroids for sore throats maybe beneficial but more information on harms needed

653: NSAIDS provide limited benefit to those with low back pain

652: Breathing Exercises shown to be Beneficial for Adults with Asthma

651: HRT for women who have menopausal symptoms following surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer: Is it safe?

650: Text-based messaging interventions improve smoking cessation rates

649: Early rather than deferred androgen suppression therapy more beneficial for advanced prostate cancer

648: Uncertainty on Mediterranean-style diet for prevention of cardiovascular disease

647: Limited benefit for tramadol in osteoarthritis

646: Range of interventions effective for emergency contraception

645: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation beneficial in cardiac failure

644: No evidence for vitamin and mineral supplementation for maintenance of cognitive function in adults

643: Evidence for effectiveness of cannabis and cannabidiol on ulcerative colitis uncertain

642: Insufficient evidence for pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence

641: Uncertainty over effectiveness of TENS for chronic pain

640: Small benefit for low-dose antibiotics to prevent recurrence of symptomatic UTI in children

639: Minimal benefits from paracetamol for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee or hip

638: Limited evidence for benefits of omega-6 fats for prevention of cardiovascular disease 

637:  Perioperative alcohol cessation intervention reduces postoperative complications

636: Limited evidence for benefits of computer-assisted techniques for diagnosing skin cancer in adults

635: No place for antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis in adults 

634: Prophylactic antibiotic therapy effective for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

633: Limited evidence for effectiveness of relapse prevention interventions for smoking cessation

632: Patient-mediated interventions improve professional practice

631: Omega-3 fatty acids beneficial in pregnancy

630: Limited benefits from methotrexate in adults with psoriatic arthritis

629: Small benefit for low-dose antibiotics to prevent recurrence of symptomatic UTI in children

628: Combination nicotine replacement therapy more effective than single-form for smoking cessation

627: Little evidence of benefits for routine scale and polish for periodontal health

626: No evidence of benefits from H1 antihistamines for eczema

625: Exercise programs reduce falls in older people living in the community

624: General health checks unlikely to be beneficial

623: Taxane-based chemohormonal therapy effective for metastatic prostate cancer

622: School-based interventions effective in preventing multiple risk behaviours

621: Graduated compression stockings prevent postoperative deep vein thrombosis

620: Effects of cannabis on Crohn’s disease uncertain

619: Mirror therapy improves motor function after stroke

618: Limited evidence for benefits of antidepressants in dementia

617: Nurses effective as substitutes for doctors in primary care

616: Glucocorticoids effective for croup in children

615: Drugs to lower blood pressure reduce recurrent stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack

614: Communication skills training beneficial for health care professionals working in cancer care

613: Limited evidence for benefit of ear drops for removal of wax

612: Antibiotics effective for prolonged wet cough in children

611: Epidural effective for pain relief in labour

610: Some benefits from donepezil in Alzheimer’s disease

609: Some benefits from induction of labour at or beyond term

608: Limited benefit from grommets for recurrent acute otitis media in children

607: Limited benefit from interventions for improving modifiable risk factor control in the secondary prevention of stroke

606: Psychotherapy effective for treatment-resistant depression in adults

605: Little evidence of effectiveness of antidepressants for insomnia in adults

604: All forms of nicotine replacement therapy effective for smoking cessation

603: SSRIs beneficial for social anxiety disorder

602: Drug-eluting stents may be more effective than bare-metal stents for acute coronary syndrome

601: Vaccines have modest impact on influenza in healthy adults

600: Limited evidence for benefits of open surgery for trigger finger

599: Group behaviour therapy sessions effective for smoking cessation

598: Little or no benefits for e-learning over traditional learning 

597: Lack of evidence for cannabis in adults with chronic neuropathic pain

596: Vaccines reduce influenza in the elderly

595: Screening and brief alcohol interventions effective in primary care populations

594: No evidence for cardiovascular benefits from low glycaemic index diets

593: Psychological treatments beneficial for people with epilepsy

592: Corticosteroids beneficial for adults with severe community-acquired pneumonia

591: Insufficient evidence for effectiveness of acupuncture for neuropathic pain

590: Home treatment has benefits over in-patient treatment for deep vein thrombosis

589: No evidence found to support using antioxidants to provide a noticeable reduction in post-exercise muscle soreness 

588: Exercise effective for intermittent claudication

587: Limited benefits from bisphosphonates for advanced prostate cancer

586: Limited benefits from pharmacotherapy for hypertension in people under 60

585: Clinician-targeted interventions can reduce antibiotic prescribing for ARIs

584: Gabapentin effective for some patients with chronic neuropathic pain

583: No overall health benefit from lower blood pressure targets

582: Personalised digital interventions reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption

581: HPV testing more sensitive than cytology for cervical screening

580: Music therapy beneficial for depression

579: Mass media interventions effective for smoking cessation

578: Insufficient evidence of benefits from whole grain cereals in cardiovascular disease

577: Individual behavioural counselling assists quitting

576: Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements may be beneficial in age-related macular degeneration

575: Early supported discharge services beneficial for people with acute stroke

574: Oral antifungals effective for toenail onychomycosis

573: Proton pump inhibitors effective for functional dyspepsia

572: Music-based therapeutic interventions help depression in dementia

571: Decision aids beneficial for people facing health treatment or screening decisions

570: Probiotics beneficial for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood

569: Computer-generated reminders on paper benefit quality of care

568: Chlorhexidine mouthrinse effective short-term adjunct for dental plaque reduction


567:  No evidence of benefits from oral NSAIDs for fibromyalgia

566: Tobacco cessation interventions helpful for people with substance use disorders 


564: No evidence for drug treatments for recurrent abdominal pain in children

563: Little evidence of benefit for injected corticosteroids in plantar heel pain

562: Standardised packaging reduces tobacco use

561: No effective interventions for molluscum contagiosum

560: Topical analgesics effective for acute and chronic pain

559: Shared care effective for depression

558: Psychosocial interventions effective for smoking cessation in pregnancy


557: Industry sponsorship influences research outcomes

556: Breastfeeding support improves outcomes

555: Limited evidence for benefits of prophylactic drug treatment for febrile seizures


554: Moisturisers beneficial for eczema

553: Non-medical prescribers effective in management of chronic disease

552: Topical capsaicin effective for chronic neuropathic pain

551: Topical analgesics effective for acute and chronic pain

550: Psychosocial therapy of some benefit in recurrent abdominal pain in childhood

549: Automated telephone communication systems promising for preventive health care and managing long-term conditions

548: Need to balance benefits and risks of long-term hormone therapy in postmenopausal women

547: No evidence of benefits from stretch for the treatment and prevention of contractures

546: Limited evidence of effectiveness of analgesics in AOM in children

545: Little evidence on effective pharmacotherapies for sleep disturbances in dementia

544: Written information can reduce use of antibiotics for acute URTIs

543: Modest benefit of fibrates for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

542: Thrombolysis and anticoagulants more effective than anticoagulants alone in acute DVT


541: Yoga beneficial for women with breast cancer

540: No evidence of benefits from corticosteroids alone in Guillain-Barre syndrome

539: Paracetamol no better than placebo for acute low back pain

538: Electronic cigarettes assist smoking cessation

537: Corticosteroids effective for Bell’s palsy

536: Speech and language therapy effective for post-stroke aphasia

535: Implementation tools developed by guideline producers may improve guideline uptake

534: Acupuncture effective in preventing tension-type headache

533: Limited evidence for benefits of short-course oral steroids for chronic rhinosinusitis

532: Behavioural treatment and pharmacotherapy effective for smoking cessation in people with COPD


531: Varenicline more effective for smoking cessation than bupropion

530: Daily iron supplementation beneficial in menstruating women

529: Limited evidence for benefits of interventions in preventing cold sores

528: Topical NSAIDs effective for pain in knee osteoarthritis

527: Vitamin supplementation does not prevent miscarriage

526: Treatment of first unprovoked seizure should be individualised

525: Similar outcomes for different follow-up strategies in early breast cancer

523: Midwife-led continuity models of care beneficial

522: Yoga of some benefit for asthma

521: Primary prevention reduces the risk of unintended adolescent pregnancies

520: Mixed evidence on interventions for improving outcomes in patients with multimorbidity

519: Limited benefit from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for chronic low back pain

518: Limited evidence for benefits of interventions to reduce sitting at work

517:Skin grafting and tissue replacement effective for diabetic foot ulcers

516: Legislative smoking bans improve health outcomes

515: Over the counter artificial tears effective for dry eye syndrome

514: Therapist-supported internet CBT effective for adult anxiety disorders

513: Limited evidence for effectiveness of home-based end-of-life care


512: Topical steroids effective for scalp psoriasis

511: Herpes zoster vaccine effective in older adults

510: Limited evidence for benefits of dietary fibre in cardiovascular disease

509: Motor control exercise similar to other forms of exercise for chronic non-specific low-back pain

508: Little evidence for water precautions in preventing infections in children with grommets


507: Limited evidence for benefits of tricyclics for nocturnal enuresis


506: Over-the-counter analgesics effective for acute postoperative pain

505: Limited evidence to support use of interactive telemedicine 

504: Limited evidence for intra-articular corticosteroids in knee osteoarthritis

503: Limited evidence for light therapy as preventive treatment for seasonal affective disorder

502: Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce antibiotic prescribing

501: Two blood markers moderately accurate in screening for Down’s syndrome

500: Limited evidence for benefits of methylphenidate in ADHD

499: No identified risk in use of topical corticosteroids during pregnancy

498: Insufficient evidence for antihistamines for the common cold

497:  Music improves sleep quality

496: No evidence for efficacy of NSAIDs for neuropathic pain

495: Presentation influences selection and consumption of food

494: Primary care consultation liaison effective for mental disorders

493: Crisis intervention effective in severe mental illness

492: No evidence of benefits for hormone therapy in preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women

491: Higher doses of atorvastatin reduce cholesterol more than lower doses

490: Pilates of some benefit for low back pain


489: Psychosocial interventions effective for smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease

488: Limited benefits from antivirals in Bell’s palsy


487: Rivastigmine has a small effect in Alzheimer’s disease

486: No benefit from treating asymptomatic bacteriuria

485: Psychological interventions may benefit non-specific chest pain management

484: Incentives effective for smoking cessation

483: Personalised care planning beneficial for adults with chronic or long-term health conditions

482: Chondroitin effective for osteoarthritis


481: CBT plus tapering dose reduces benzodiazepine use in short term

480: SSRIs and SNRIs ineffective for preventing tension-type headaches

479: Topical rubefacients ineffective for musculoskeletal pain

478: Uricosuric medications effective for chronic gout

477: CBT effective for medically unexplained physical symptoms

476: Case management beneficial for people with dementia

475: Topical anti-inflammatory agents effective for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face or scalp

474: Effects of fixed-dose combination therapy for prevention of cardiovascular disease uncertain

473: Limited evidence for effectiveness of H1-antihistamines for chronic spontaneous urticaria

472: Alpha-blockers effective for ureteral stones

471: No specific treatment beneficial for painful nipples among breastfeeding women

461: Minimal benefits from neuraminidase inhibitors in influenza

460: Calcium channel blockers minimally effective for Raynaud’s phenomenon

459: No evidence for routine systemic antibiotics for venous leg ulcers

458: Psychosocial interventions may be of some benefit in prostate cancer

458: Limited benefit from hip protectors

457: Vitamin D alone ineffective for preventing fractures

457: Vitamin D supplementation may reduce mortality in elderly adults

456: Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies can benefit common mental disorders

450: Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety effective in dementia and mild cognitive impairment

449: Powered toothbrushing more effective than manual for oral health

448: Ultrasound ineffective for chronic low-back pain

446: Self-management effective for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

445: Electromagnetic field treatment effective for osteoarthritis pain

444: Water-based exercise training beneficial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

442: Decision aids helpful for treatment or screening conditions

Amoxicillin once or twice daily as effective as three times daily dosing for acute otitis media

Variety of interventions improve safety and effectiveness of medicines use

Statins ineffective for dementia

Sumatriptan effective for acute migraine in adults

For access to over 400 PEARLS please visit the home of the Cochrane Primary Healthcare Field 

To subscribe for the PEARLS mailalert please go to: